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february 13, 2024

We are approaching the 25th anniversary of the historic February 15th international conspiracy1 which was aimed at the destruction of Rêber Apo2 and the Kurdish people’s will for existence and freedom. The isolation, torture and genocide system of Imrali created on the basis of the conspiracy is completing its 25th year. On this occasion, first of all we once again condemn the conspiratorial forces. We commemorate respectfully and gratefully all our heroic martyrs who sacrificially resisted against the conspiracy on the basis of the “You cannot darken our sun” campaign. We salute Rêber Apo and the historic Imrali resistance.

On the occasion of the 25th anniversary, it is necessary to dwell on the international conspiracy and the system of isolation, torture and genocide practiced on Imrali. There is a need to summarize the past 25 years. Especially on the anniversary, what is the status of the conspiracy and the Imrali system of torture, isolation and genocide that perpetuates it? In which condition are we entering the 26th year? We will try to summarize this.

As is known, the international conspiracy began on October 9, 1998. It was an attack that forced Rêber Apo to leave Syria and aimed to destroy him in a conspiratorial way by immobilizing him. We must never forget that the international conspiracy is in fact an attack. The international conspiracy should never be understood in any other way. It does not serve any other purpose. Its main purpose is to destroy Rêber Apo, to liquidate the PKK on this basis, and to finish off the genocide of the Kurds. On this basis, the international conspiracy attack was an attack that emerged from the Kurdish genocide. It was an attack created by the genocidal mentality and politics which had been imposed on the Kurdish people for a hundred years.

We know that this genocidal mentality and politics was formed during the First World War. At first, it presented itself in the Armenian genocide and the massacre of Kurds. Then it continued in the form of the Assyrian and Greek genocide, but found its main structure in the one-hundred-year genocide of the Kurds. It centralized all these genocidal attacks in Kurdish-enmity. Kurdish enmity and Kurdish genocide became the basis of this mentality and politics.

We know that this mentality and politics were put into practice with the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne3, but it was actually shaped in the Cairo Conference of 19214. In the Treaty of Lausanne, the reconciliation between the victorious countries of the First World War and the Kemalist regime on the basis of genocide emerged. After that, it was put into practice in a planned manner.

Rêber Apo defined February 15 as “Kurdish Genocide Day”. He expressed this in light of the Şêx Saîd5 resistance on February 15, 1925. The conspiratorial provocative attack against Şêx Saîd in 1925 and the international conspiracy attack against Rêber Apo in 1998 were the continuation and completion of each other. For this reason, Rêber Apo refined February 15 as the day of conspiracy, the day of provocation, and the day of the Kurdish Genocide. This genocidal attack is now entering a new year. With February 15th, the year we enter will mark the centennial of this genocidal attack which started with Şêx Saîd.

This attack was planned and carried out by different states during different periods in North, East and South Kurdistan6. But there has always been a common management. Britain and France, which organized the global capitalist modernity system, had assigned the Turkish state the task of actually carrying out the Kurdish genocide as was revealed in the Treaty of Lausanne. During the periods which followed, there was always a common management to ensure the completion of the Kurdish genocide. In other words, there has always been an administration that is a combination of the powers that run the global capitalist modernity system and the nation-state administrations that carry out genocidal attacks on the four parts of Kurdistan. By the 1970s, they thought they had received results with such an attack. Especially with the Algeria Agreement of January 19757, when the ‘Kurdistan Democratic Party’ (KDP) declared ‘Ashbetal’8 and was defeated, the classical Kurdish resistance was coming to an end. Kurdish society was losing its resistance dynamics based on the tribal, feudal social structure. Based on this, the states that ruled over Kurdistan, especially the Turkish state, were now saying, that they had completed the Kurdish genocide. They really believed that they had completed the Kurdish genocide. In 1930, after crushing the Ararat resistance9, the Turkish state even had the audacity to build a shrine on Mount Ararat and write “The imaginary Kurdistan has been buried here”. Already at that time, it actually thought that it had completed the Kurdish genocide.

From 1973 onwards, under the leadership of Rêber Apo, against such a genocidal mentality and politics, a new national liberationist consciousness, organization and gradually action against the genocidal attack developed. It became a party in 1978, launched the armed struggle on August 15, 1984, and in the early 1990s, this movement succeeded in the revolution of national resurrection in North Kurdistan. It created the ‘serhildan’ (popular uprisings) that envisioned a women-led liberation revolution.

Thus, while real socialism was dissolving and the world was entering a new period of war, the Third World War, a popular resistance, a popular uprising was emerging in Kurdistan against the genocidal mentality and politics created by the global capitalist modernity system. The genocidal mentality and politics saw this as the greatest danger for itself. If we pay attention, the process called the Third World War started with the Gulf War. It was a US attack and intervention in the Middle East. With this war, the US took the Gulf and its surroundings under military control. During the NATO-agreed ‘Operation Hammer Force’ the Hewlêr [Erbil] administration of our day was created and it was aimed to prevent the PKK from entering South Kurdistan. Thus, the PKK would be encircled in North Kurdistan. Based on this scheme, in October 1992, a joint military attack by the Turkish Republic, the USA, the KDP and ‘Patriotic Union Kurdistan’ (PUK) was developed in order to dismantle the guerrilla from liberating the areas which today we refer to as the Meyda Defense Zones. We call this the First Southern War. In fact, the conspiracy started with this attack.

Previously, with the declaration of a state of emergency in July 1987, a global annihilation and liquidation operation was organized against the PKK. But this was thwarted by the guerrilla resistance, by Rêber Apo who frustrated all provocative attacks, and by the resistance in the Düsseldorf Trial10. Thus, the Third World War, which emerged as a new attack of the global capitalist modernity system, began with the US establishing military control in the Gulf with its own internal contradictions on the one hand, and on the other hand, by eliminating alternative forces, by encircling and limiting the PKK in North Kurdistan.

The struggle was fought on this basis throughout the 90s. The Turkish state, with the support of the KDP and the US, continued a military annihilation attack against the PKK, including South Kurdistan, in the form of various operations. In the end, when the US wanted to take the Third World War to a new stage by seizing Baghdad, it first attacked Rêber Apo. It planned to carry out the invasion attack against Baghdad by neutralizing Rêber Apo and thus preventing the PKK from intervening in South Kurdistan and Iraq. They did not dare to attack Baghdad in Rêber Apo’s presence. Because they were afraid of what might happen. They were afraid that Rêber Apo could influence South Kurdistan and even Iraq and provide a new alternative, spark a revolutionary and democratic development against the capitalist system, just like the October Revolution. That is why they could not attack Baghdad for 13 years, from 1991 to 2003. Rêber Apo’s presence prevented military attacks. It preserved peace in the Middle East.

Finally, on October 9, 1998, on the basis of the plan and decision of the US, Britain and Israel alliance, an international conspiracy attack was launched to destroy Rêber Apo. They wanted to annihilate him in a shootout over the Mediterranean Sea. They forced Rêber Apo to leave Syria. They invited him to Greece. When he went to Greece, they did not let him leave the airport. They put him in a position where he had left Syria, could not enter Greece and had no place to go in this world. They tried to force him to go back. In other words, they wanted to destroy him with an extermination attack that neither Greece nor Syria would undertake. Rêber Apo broke this by not going back, instead he went to Russia. He broke the pressure on Russia by going to Rome. A series of extermination attacks were organized against Rêber Apo. After Rome, again he went to Russia. Then they took him to Greece, they took him to Belarus. There were many attacks aiming his extermination. Rêber Apo frustrated all of them. When these attacks failed, they took him to Kenya vowing that they would take him to South Africa. When they could not destroy him in Kenya through the Greek government, they decided to carry out the February 15th conspiracy. In other words, they wanted to assassinate Rêber Apo through a cold case before the February 15th abduction attack was brought to the agenda. Instead of assassinating him themselves, the plan was that he be handed over to Turkey who would execute him. According to Turkish law, he would be executed without question. No one had any doubt about this.

On this basis, the February 15, 1999 conspiracy attack was organized. Rêber Apo was fraudulently kidnapped and taken to Turkey, to Imrali and subjected to a sham trial. On the same day that Şêx Saîd was executed, Rêber Apo was also sentenced to death. The day they made a provocation against Şêx Saîd, they kidnapped Rêber Apo from Kenya. The same day they executed Şêx Saîd, they sentenced Rêber Apo to death. Those who assumed that they had destroyed the Kurdish resistance could not accept and digest the emergence of a new Kurdish freedom resistance led by Rêber Apo. They wanted to make it look like this resistance never existed. We must know these facts very well. Kurdish people, Kurdish society, Kurdish youth, women should understand very well. In fact, all revolutionary democratic forces, socialist forces should understand all this very well. To be a patriot in Kurdistan, to be a libertarian, and especially to be a revolutionary militant, one must definitely understand and feel the reality of the conspiracy and its annihilating attack against Rêber Apo. One cannot claim to carry out revolutionary patriotic duties correctly if they do not understand and feel this reality. They certainly cannot become successful freedom fighters. In this respect, these historical processes are very important.

We also know the aftermath. When Rêber Apo exposed the conspiracy, when he exposed the conspirators, especially when he exposed the dimension of the conspiracy towards Turkey, things changed. Because Bülent Ecevit, the Prime Minister who was in charge during the conspiracy, said, “I do not understand why America gave Apo11 to us.” Rêber Apo made them understand by explaining the reality of the conspiracy. He deeply analyzed and evaluated the dimensions of the conspiracy towards Turkish society and the reality of Turkey. This created an important questioning in the society, mentality and even the rulers of Turkey.

On the other hand, when the conspiratorial forces organized the February 15 attack, that is, when they kidnapped Rêber Apo from Kenya and took him to Imrali, they were anticipating that the PKK would dissolve within 6 months. They were saying this publicly. After 6 months, they said, the PKK would no longer exist. Thus, they were calculating that they would resort to genocide based on the execution of Rêber Apo and the liquidation of the PKK. But Rêber Apo developed the struggle against the conspiracy very deeply. The PKK did not disintegrate or liquidate as expected. Kurdish society did not break away from Rêber Apo and the PKK. A great sacrificial resistance developed with the “You cannot darken our sun” campaign. The movement and the people united around Rêber Apo.

This is what frustrated and thwarted the aim of the February 15 conspiracy. The rulers of the Republic of Turkey, who received the order to carry out the execution, had to question the situation deeply. They estimated that the PKK and the Kurdish people would rise up if they carried out the order. They knew the people will rise up and demand accountability, that they will cause the great damage to the Turkish state. They saw this as harmful for themselves. Instead, they created the Imrali system of torture, isolation and genocide and tried to destroy the struggle under this system with the policy of disintegration. In other words, they wanted to extend the time of the execution. They postponed the execution on this basis.

Later, the coalition government headed by Bülent Ecevit carried out the policy of decay on Imrali. At the time, the government was aiming to enter the European Union. Within the scope of entering the European Union, it was calculated that with the solution of the Kurdish question on the basis of individual rights, the Kurdish people’s rights to freedom and democracy would actually be eliminated. With such a goal, they created the Imrali System and launched the Imrali attack. Imrali itself was created as an attack. The Imrali system is actually the continuation of the international conspiracy attack. It has become a system that sustains and perpetuates it. Those who built Imrali said: “Execution kills once, in Imrali you die 10 times a day.” This is how Rêber Apo evaluated the reality of Imrali. He said, “There is no normal death in Imrali, there is just killing.” Thus, in fact, it was going to be a policy of decay, an execution spread over time. Supposedly Rêber Apo would not produce anything, the PKK would not renew itself, it would be liquidated, the leadership would be left without an organization. Thus, the Kurdish freedom resistance would disappear. This was the plot, this was the plan. The Imrali struggle started on this basis. Rêber Apo said that despite the heaviness of his situation, difficulty and impossibility of the conditions, we can fight and defeat these attacks. He asked for support from the organization and the people. Our movement and our people trusted, believed and supported Rêber Apo.

This is when the process we call the intense struggle on Imrali in 2000, 2001, 2002 began. Let us remember those days. Those who want can do research on this. No one believed that what Rêber Apo said would come true. Everyone said it was impossible. They said: “It is impossible that one struggles on Imrali, there is nothing left for Apo to do anymore. The PKK should come to its senses, it has so many opportunities; it should not waste them. It should stop following Apo.” Not only ordinary people but even patriots around us were saying this.

When our leadership announced that they would support Rêber Apo, they were subjected to heavy insults. When the archives are opened, it will be revealed who took what stance, what they understood from the conspiracy and what they said. The situation was important. According to the stance of an average person, there was nothing that could be done in Imrali. Even in normal prisons nothing could be done, what could be done in a place like Imrali, which was created to kill 10 times a day? They couldn’t imagine that anything could be done. They could not understand this. But Rêber Apo is not an ordinary person. He is not a normal person. He is extraordinary. When he believes in something, when he aims for something, he achieves it. He has a great concentration, working style, achievement, creativity. He has a very strong productivity. He has the strongest discipline in daily life and in work. Even if there are no opportunities, by understanding, questioning and feeling life, he shows the power to produce new thoughts, to come up with new principles of life and to put them into practice. This is what they could not understand. They did not know, did not understand or did not want to understand the reality of Rêber Apo, the reality of leadership, the reality of creativity embodied in Rêber Apo. They thought that Rêber Apo was like them. But everyone was wrong.

Everyone was wrong in regard of the Imrali struggle between 2000 and 2002. Ecevit himself was wrong first and foremost. While he was hoping for a definitive result, on August 2, 2002, they removed the death penalty from the Constitution. In fact, he thought he had achieved a complete result. When Rêber Apo put forward the program of a Free Kurdistan and a Democratic Middle East as the solution to the Kurdish question in his two-volume ECHR prisonwriting titled “From Sumerian Priest State to Democratic Civilization”, when he put forward the program that the Kurdish question can only be solved with the Kurdish people’s rights to freedom and democracy, that the Kurdish question will be solved when the Kurdish people are free and democratic and reach freedom and democracy as a people, Ecevit’s individual rights program collapsed. In an instant, they almost had Ecevit in the hospital, they almost had him deposed as prime minister. Then they forced early elections. Ecevit once again said, “I couldn’t understand why Bahçeli wanted early elections. He was actually managing the process very well. Why this early election?” He left without understanding two things. One, why did the US give them Rêber Apo? And why did Bahçeli want early elections?

Let the Turkish public question why the 15 February 1999 conspiracy organized. Why was the October 9, 1998 conspiracy organized? Why did Bahçeli force the Ecevit government to hold early elections at the end of 2002? He forced it because it had failed, he could no longer manage the international conspiracy. Therefore, in the November 2002 elections, the coalition disappeared and the religious AKP took power in its place. The conspiratorial forces assigned Tayyip Erdoğan and his colleagues to manage the international conspiracy. Tayyip Erdoğan is not such a politician. The AKP is not a political party either. Look at its history. It is a party that came to power without even holding a grand congress. When has a political party ever won elections and come to power alone without even holding a congress? That’s how he was assigned. They were supposed to prevent the Kurds from supporting the PKK and Rêber Apo by taking advantage of the islamic feelings and beliefs of the Turkish people with the understanding of the islamic ummah. They were going to cut the popular support of the PKK and Rêber Apo. With the liquidatig, provocative attacks they developed from within, they were going to divide and fragment, and with the AKP mentality and attacks, they were going to lead the international conspiracy to success. This is exactly how the AKP came to power. It also carried out attacks on this basis.

In the end, Rêber Apo frustrated all the attacks. He also frustrated the liquidationist internal attacks. He also nullified the false solution in the name of the islamic ummah. With what? With a paradigm shift. On the basis of ‘Democratic Confederalism’, ‘Democratic Autonomy’, ‘Democratic Society’ and ‘Democratic Nation’12, based on the principles of women’s freedom and ecology, he revealed the solution of the Kurdish question. Not only the Kurdish question, he revealed a new paradigm that includes the solution of the liberation problems of all the oppressed people and especially the women. Rêber Apo achieved a new intellectual revolution in the Imrali struggle despite the attacks carried out by the AKP. This is one of the greatest developments in history. It is one of the greatest revolutions of thought. Perhaps the biggest one. We need to see it like this. History will write that this is so.

When the AKP was defeated in this way, there was no other power in the Turkish administration that could successfully carry out the international conspiracy. They wanted to continue this attack by making various new plans through Tayyip Erdoğan and his colleagues. They have brought it to this day. They made various kinds of plans. The 2008-2009 was such a planning. In November 2009, Rêber Apo said, “The system is carrying out a coup.” In December 2009, they shut down the ‘Democratic Society Party’ (DTP). Indeed, AKP organized a putschist attack against democratic politics.

As of the end of May 2010, Rêber Apo withdrew, saying “there are no conditions for waging a political struggle”. Thus, 2010-2012 was a period of great war. Between 2013-15, the AKP launched a supposed ‘Solution’ Process which turned out to be a new attack including various games and tricks. Rêber Apo’s answer was: “Then let’s start the resistance”.

As of July 24, 2015, the AKP launched an all-out attack under the name of ‘çöktürme planı’13. All kinds of relations with Rêber Apo were cut and it was once again aimed to crush the guerrilla and liquidate the PKK. Now, as this Imrali system process and these attacks are leaving behind 25 years, we see that all conspiratorial attacks carried out by the AKP on the basis of very different plans have been broken, frustrated and failed. Moreover, on October 10, 2023, the intellectual, democratic, worker and socialist circles of the world launched a new campaign in 74 countries of the world, aiming for the physical freedom of Rêber Apo. Now, the 25th anniversary of the February 15 conspiracy is being met on the basis of such a campaign. The Kurdish people and their international friends are rising up everywhere. Every day, press-statements, panels, discussions, readings, rallies, and demonstrations are being carried out across the globe for the physical freedom of Rêber Apo. This is also true in the four parts of Kurdistan. Rojava is up every day. In North Kurdistan, a march called the ‘Great Freedom March´ started on February 1st. In Europe, young people are marching. On February 17th in Cologne, the Kurdish people will demonstrate their general attitude by demanding the physical freedom of Rêber Apo and the dismantling of the Imrali system of torture, isolation and genocide. It will show everyone what the Kurdish society wants. There is a march of such importance.

This was supported by guerrilla actions. At the end of November, at the end of December. The revolutionary operations that crushed the AKP-MHP fascist hordes on January 12 declared the collapse of the Tayyip Erdoğan administration, the last guardian of the Imrali torture, isolation and genocide system, and the ones who assigned them to lead it to success.

On the 25th anniversary, our people and friends are uproaring, rejecting the conspiracy. They do not want to live with the Imrali torture and isolation system. The guerrilla’s of Zap are also putting forward a great struggle through their style of striking. With that belief, that determination, that assertion, they want to destroy the February 15 conspiracy and the Imrali torture and isolation system.

I also want to mention a few points about the Imrali torture and isolation system. This is a management system. This is not a prison, it is not a hostage house. There should be no mistake about this. The 25-year old Imrali system is a system created to serve the international conspiracy. The international conspiracy attack was an attack aimed at the destruction of Rêber Apo. Therefore, the Imrali system is a system established to achieve the destruction of Rêber Apo. It is a system of isolation, torture and genocide established to realize the Kurdish genocide. In fact, the genocidal attacks against the Kurdish people for 25 years have been managed on the basis of the Imrali system. As we have already mentioned, Kurdistan was ruled by the global capitalist modernity system and the joint governments of these nation-state governments that practiced genocide in Kurdistan. It was ruled by pacts such as the CENTO Pact, the Baghdad Pact, the Sadabat Pact. Each period was ruled by the state of emergency.

For the last 25 years, for a quarter of a century, Imrali has been governed on the basis of torture, isolation and genocide. The Imrali system is a genocide system. It is a system of management where the Kurdish genocide is implemented. It is not system just ruled by the Turkish state. It is not just a fascist system of the AKP-MHP. In fact, it is a system created by the global capitalist modernity system, which finds expression in the UN, is carried out through NATO, and is led by the US, Britain and Israel. In other words, it is a system of governance created by the Kurdish genocide mentality and politics. Rêber Apo said, “When I came to Imrali, I found the CPT in front of me.” That is how much they have in common. Therefore, the Turkish Republic does not actually run the place. He stated that the role of the Turkish Republic is that of a guardian. This is a joint administration. It is a joint administration system designed by the pioneers of the global capitalist modernity system and the administrations of the states that occupied and established nation-state rule in Kurdistan. They carry out and manage the genocidal attacks against Kurdistan on the basis of the Imrali system. Because Rêber Apo expresses the will of the Kurdish people for existence and freedom. The attack against this will is the essence and basis of the Kurdish genocidal attack. Therefore, we must understand the Imrali system well. We must feel it right down to our bones. We should not see it as something ordinary.

Now we are experiencing the 25th anniversary of this system. As we enter the 26th year, everyone should put their heads down and think deeply. When will those who for 25 years have persecuted and attacked Rêber Apo on the basis of the Imrali system, who have carried out genocidal attacks on the Kurdish people, realize what an insult they have committed. What a crime against humanity they have committed? They must see it now. The USA, the UK, Israel, the CoE, the CPT, the ECHR; all of them must see. How far will this go? How long will this Kurdish hostility last? For how long will the Kurdish people be insulted? What have the Kurds done to anyone? Why is there so much enmity against the Kurds? Why is the extermination of the Kurds being carried on? Doesn’t the Kurdish community have the right to exist and live freely? One of the most ancient peoples of history. The ancient people of Mesopotamia who have been the cradle of the development of civilization and humanity. How will those who attack such a people represent humanity, how will they represent civilization?

Now the show has ended, the curtains have fallen. The international conspiracy and the Imrali system of torture, isolation and genocide have been exposed in every detail. It has been seen for what it really is. They must give up on it now. They cannot continue this system any longer. Everyone should know that if they try to continue it any longer, they will face more severe reactions. They will face reactions from the Kurdish people, Kurdish women, Kurdish youth, as well as the peoples of the Middle East and all humanity, all women. They must accept that if they continue the attacks this long, the resistance against them will spread, develop and radicalize.

In that respect, the 25th anniversary really requires a re-evaluation for everyone. Those who organized the conspiracy, those who created the Imrali system of torture, isolation and genocide, and those who have governed until today should do so. Turkish society, the administration, politicians, intellectuals, everyone in Turkey should do this because they are being held accountable. On the occasion of the conspiracy, we are re-evaluating too.

In the next chapter we will of course focus on a new questioning. What is the Imrali resistance? What lessons should we learn from it, and how should we approach the 25th anniversary? We will focus on that, which will also be a new questioning for us. But everyone should know that on the 25th anniversary, the international conspiracy has gone down in history as the most brutal, anti-human attack in history. It is a dark stain on those who perpetrated it. It is the most unjust and despicable attack in history. Despite all this, Rêber Apo, the Kurdish people and their international friends did not stop for 25 years, they resisted and deflated the conspiracy. They have repeatedly, dozens, even hundreds of times, frustrated the conspiratorial attacks. On the 25th anniversary of the conspiracy, they are carrying out a campaign that aims to destroy it completely. They will make the 26th year of resistance the year of victory of the global freedom move aiming for the physical freedom of Rêber Apo. They will destroy and dismantle the Imrali system of torture, isolation and genocide, which tries to perpetuate the international conspiracy, and they will ensure the physical freedom of Rêber Apo. On this basis, they will pave the way for the freedom of Kurdistan and the democratization of Turkey.



Footnotes by the translator:

1 This refers to the international complot against Abdullah Öcalan, which was initiated on October 9, 1998 and culminated on February 15, 1999 when Öcalan was unlawfully kidnapped to Turkey, where he has since been held on the prison island of Imrali in the Sea of Marmara.

2 Referring to Kurdish people’s  leader Abdullah Öcalan.

3 A treaty from July 24, 1923 that splitted up the Ottoman Empire and formed the borders of today’s Middle East.

4 The so-called Cairo Conference of 1921 was a series of secret meetings by British officials to organize their dominance over both Iraq and Tansjordan.

5 Şêx Saîd was a Kurdish tribal leader who led a general uprising against the Turkish occupation. The rebellion failed due to treason and Şêx Saîd was hanged with his comrades on June 29, 1925.

6 Kurdistan is divided and colonized by four different nation states. North Kurdistan, which lays in Southeast Turkey. East Kurdistan, which lays in West Iran. South Kurdistan which lays in North Iraq. West Kurdistan [also known as Rojava] in North Syrian.

7 The Algeria Agreement, signed on March 6, 1975, resolved territorial disputes between Iraq and Iran following a series of Kurdish rebellions.

8 Kurdish word for surrender.

9 The Ararat Resistance was a series of rebellions in the northern Kurdish region of Ararat in the second half of the 1920s.

10 The Düsseldorf Trial was a legal procedure from October 1989 to March 1994 in which an attempt was made to criminalize the PKK on an international legal level for the first time.

11 Referring to Abdullah Öcalan.

12 The mentioned concepts are central aspects of the political philophy of Abdullah Öcalan.

13 Plan that the Turkish government, or rather the deep state of Turkey in coordination with NATO forces, forged secretly during the so-called ‘peace process’. The state abruptly broke off talks with the Kurdish movement in 2015 and escalated the situation as part of this plan, which could literally be translated as a ‘plan of forcing them to their knees’.